Thursday, February 20, 2020

History and Development of Corrections Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

History and Development of Corrections - Essay Example According to Ignatieff (1978), when U.S. attained independence from England in 1776, The Britons did not have a foreign protectorate where they could imprison people without costing a lot of money. Hence, the convict system started in 1776 as a backslash to the loss of American protectorates. It was essential to find an intermediate punishment, incorporating correction of the body and mind. Publication of The State of Prison in England and Wales- a book written by John Howard- in 1776 offered a significant information on the conditions of prisons and the prisoners contained there (Ignatieff, 1978). The public’s concentration turned towards the penal condition in England after reading this book. Howard had stumbled upon something that was significant in the eyes of public. In the 18thC, there were two types of prisons: the house of correction and the jail. The 18thC’s jail was almost similar to the one in the late 20thC. Furthermore, it also housed people waiting for tri al. This group of people included those who could not afford bail and those sentenced for a short period (Barnes, 1972). The prisons or jails were used mainly for the detention of those accused of crime awaiting their trial and for the imprisonment of debtors and religious political offenders. A true account is that they were hardly ever used for the imprisonment of the criminal classes. Semple (1993) asserts that a health reformer called Jeremy Bentham stepped into the prison debate using Howard’s work as a basis. He had concluded that there were three kinds of prisons. His concepts had developed upon what was initially thought of as the status quo. These three kinds of prisons included the Black Prison, the House of Safe Custody, and the Penitentiary House. The House of Safe Custody was similar to an 18thC jail (Semple, 1993). Bentham believed that its main function was to house those waiting for trial and debtors. Nevertheless, the difference between the two was that, unli ke a jail, the House of Safe Custody did not imprison people sentenced for a short period. Penitentiary House was the second prison. It was a step above the House of Safe Custody. This is where temporary incarceration took place. In order to differentiate roles of the jail, these roles were divided between the Penitentiary House and the House of Safe Custody (Semple, 1993). The last type of prisons established by Bentham was the Black Prison. This prison provided longer stays compared to the Penitentiary House (Semple, 1993). In the Black Prison, two skeletons were to lie together either side of an iron door so as to strike terror into the hearts of the inmates since it reminded them that they were certainly a house of death from which there was no escape. According to Pollock (2005), there were several alterations made within the convict system in England shortly after Bentham published his concepts of what a prison must be. The first, main change was the silent system’s tri al period in 1834. The silent system offered slightly more liberty to prisoners, but any form of communication was totally prohibited. Prisoners were not imprisoned to cells though they worked together on different outside projects (Pollock, 2005). A harsh punishment would be issued in the event that the silence was broken. This system finally paved way for the popular separate system. The introduction of the separate system was the second significant change. The separate system

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Sonys Marketing Strategies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Sonys Marketing Strategies - Essay Example It has also developed a direct-marketing solution named eBridge[TM] to help marketers gain insights into the target audience and thus assess the effectiveness of campaigns. Sony has also developed a strong product portfolio and also concentrates on product diversification to increase its reach to the end-users and is also attempting to integrate its whole portfolio of devices in a networked home-entertainment system to make them more useful for the consumers. It is also trying to strengthen its existing strong brand image and trying to consolidate its market position by market development as well as mergers and acquisitions. Adding to this, Sony's creativity to make inventions, creativity in product planning and production as well as creativity in marketing has enabled it to gain an edge over its competitors. The market is dynamic and is characterised by unpredictable patterns in terms of customer perception, competitive strategies adding to this the political, economic, social and technological (PEST) elements of the market environment change continuous; hence

Monday, January 27, 2020

What Factors Effect The Climate Environmental Sciences Essay

What Factors Effect The Climate Environmental Sciences Essay Scientists used the word Climate to describe the precipitation and temperature of an area for a long period of time. They have defined the factors that have a great effect on temperature. These factors include latitude, wind, elevation, as well as the effect of the nearby ocean currents. The scientists pointed out that the factors which contribute primarily to precipitation are the prevailing winds and mountain ranges. As for the earths major climate zone, the scientists have divided the earth into three main regions: polar, temperature and tropical zone. In this study, we will discuss all that matters in details in addition to other matters which are related to the climate. (Ruddiman,; (2005) Factors affecting climate 1.1 Elevation: it is clear that the higher you go, the colder it gets. When oxygen becomes less in the air, it affects vegetation. The oxygen exists in the rain shadow of mountains leads to relief rain ( in the matter of fact the monsoons occurred when air goes up to passes over the Himalayas, carrying a lot of water. When it goes up, it cools and so cant carry the water, therefore it rains). 1.2 Latitude, location: the further you are from the equator, the colder it is. This because the sun rays coming on the earth are less and, therefore, they have less warming effect because the angle of the planet becomes near water resulting in altering the high specific heat capacity comparing to land. This means that water has the ability to absorb a lot of energy without showing a very big change in the temperature. The reverse is also true. Therefore the islands and areas which are surrounded by water have fewer variations in the temperature degree over the course of the year (including day and night, than continental places. (William F. Ruddiman (2005) 1.3 Wind: in the matter of fact, wind leads to reducing the ability of a place to support life. This because it removes away all the soil as well as what is needed to start life. At the coast, for example ,life only begins on the strand line because that keeps providing a little shelter against the wind , therefore the plants become capable to grow and they, in turn, lead to trapping the debris to become a bigger wind shelter etc. however, without the wind shelter, it would have just blown away. 1.4 Oceans: the oceans have a great effect on the climate. The Indian Ocean, for example, represents a signature of climate change over the past years. It has showed the temperatures the climate near Australia. By measuring and analyzing the climate, it is clear that there are changes in features of the ocean that cannot be explained by natural variability. These changes on the ocean climate are almost related to changes in the heat structure of the atmosphere and this affected the temperature of water by raising it in the Indian Ocean of around two degrees Celsius. There are many other factors such as atmosphere (thickness, composition), shape of land, ozone, and natural disaster such volcanoes, earthquakes, floods, etc. 2.0 Earths major climate zone Polar It is a known fact that the polar climate zone goes from North and South Poles to 60 degrees latitude. The annually average temperatures stand below freezing, or 32 degrees Fahrenheit. There are some famous polar zones which include Alaskas and Canadas northern coasts as well as the southernmost tip of South America, in which the snow melts during the warmest periods of the year. Many areas have layers of ice or glaciers. They get up to 10 inches of precipitation yearly, this, in turn; result in making the area very dry. 2.2 Temperate It is a known fact that the temperate zone is situated between the arctic or Polar Regions and the tropics, ranging from nearly 23.5 degrees to 66.5 degrees latitude, north and south of the equator. The areas which are very far from the equator may have snow during the winter season. The rains fall throughout the year closer to the equator. Yearly, the average temperatures range from 41 to 68 degrees Fahrenheit. Inland deserts are also included in temperate zone includes, such as the Gobi Desert in Central Asia and the Great Sandy Desert in Australia. (Edwards,; (2001) 2.3 Tropical Zones Tropical zones, in the matter of fact, tend to cover the area ranging from the Tropic of Capricorn, situated at 23.5 degrees south latitude, up to the Tropic of Cancer, situated at 23.5 degrees north latitude. The Tropical zones include high temperatures as well as humidity levels. Throughout the year, the temperature degree remains above 64 Fahrenheit. Throughout the day, temperature degree sometimes exceeds 95 Fahrenheit. It is known that the tropical climates have sub-tropical zones including rainforests, semi-arid zones and savannas. These climates have high levels of humidity as a result of the air convection and vertical uplift. Climate Changes In the matter of fact, the climate changes all over the world. Actually, we have new changes in the climate throughout the world. No one, all over the world, can deny this fact. Those changes may have a great effect on life throughout the world in general and on the Arabic area in particular. In fact, the problem of climate change has a relationship with the problems of the water or rivers resources and human health; therefore, these changes may have a negative effect on the economy of various countries throughout the world. Rising of temperature may lead to the destruction of many beaches; the matter may result in causing harm to the animals in the oceans. World Climate Type The KÃ ¶ppen Climate Classification System is the system which is used throughout the world to classify the various types of climates in the world. The categories of this system are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature as well as precipitation. The KÃ ¶ppen system has identintified five major types of climate , each one of these types is distinguished by a capital letter. A Tropical Moist Climates: it a known fact that this type of climate has average temperatures exceeding 18Â ° Celsius all months. B Dry Climates: it is well known that this type of climate has deficient precipitation nearly throughout the year. C Moist Mid-latitude Climates: this type of has Mild Winters. D Moist Mid-Latitude Climates: this type of climate has Cold Winters. E Polar Climates: this kind of climate has extremely cold winters and summers (Ruddiman,; (2005) There are also 8 biomes. It is known that they represent the tropical forest, dessert, temperate grassland, savannah, temperate forest, coniferous (pine) forest, chaparral and tundra. There are some people who may count High Mountain and arctic as two extra biomes, however they theyre not really biomes because they dont have almost n plant life, How the oceans influence the climate It is a well known fact that the oceans have a great influence on the climate over long as well as short time-scales. On the longest time-scale of geologic time, the location and shape of the continents leads to specify the oceans circulation patterns. As continental plates drift at nearly 5 cm per year and mountain ranges rise by nearly 1 mm, it takes usually many years for new land formations in order to change the oceans. In the matter of fact, the patterns of ocean circulation can also change rapidly, leading to climate fluctuations and variations on a human time-scale. Records of regional, in particular, and global, in general, climate indicates periods continuing from years to centuries during which the climate was systematically different from earlier and later periods. Most of the scientists believe that this behavior has a relationship with the changes in the way that the oceans store and transport heat, though the precise causes of these changes are not always clear. (D. Qi n,; 2007) The scientists assured that there is a strong link between the oceans and the atmosphere indicating that they together form the most dynamic component of the climate system. The temperature and circulation patterns of the atmosphere-ocean system can be altered as a result of changes in external factors such the distribution of various plant species, the suns energy or the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Atmosphere and oceans can also generate internal fluctuations because they are turbulent. The currents and temperature of the underlying ocean can also be directly influenced by the short-term changes and fluctuations in wind or temperature (namely, weather), meanwhile oceanic fluctuations can diminish, magnify, or modify the atmospheric fluctuations. The scientists assured that the oceans play an important role in storing carbon and heat. The change in temperature becomes greater and faster over the land than the over the oceans especially when the earths surface cools or is heated by the sun. The ocean spread the effects of the temperature change for great distances through vertical mixing and convective movements because it is a fluid. On the contrary, the solid land cannot, therefore the suns heat penetrates only the thin, upper crust. The oceans ability to absorb more heat resulted in that when an area of ocean becomes cooler or warmer than usual, it takes much longer for that area to revert to normal than it would for a land area. This clarifies the reason that makes maritime climates tend to be less extreme than continental ones, with smaller day-night and winter-summer differences. The powerful currents lead to moving the oceans waters constantly. The currents of the surface are largely wind-driven, though the presence of continents, the rotation of the earth, as well as the oceans internal dynamics have a great influence. The density differences produced by cooling and heating as well as by and evaporation and precipitation lead to driving the deep-ocean flow. The behavior of the atmosphere actually has great effects on these density differences. Clouds, for example, can lead to cooling the sea by preventing the warming rays coming from the sun or reducing the surface salinity by bringing rain. The wind can also have a great influence on the evaporation rates by blowing more weakly or more strongly. By transporting heat, these currents have a great influence on the climate. The horizontal currents, especially the currents moving north or south, can carry cooled or warmed or water as far as many thousand kilometers. After that, the displaced water can cool or warm the air as well as the land over which this air passes. Water from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, for example, moves north through the Atlantic in a current with is well known as the Gulf Stream. There it passes the shores of Western Europe, resulting in producing the climate which is mild for that latitude. Scientists asserted that the currents which are involved in deep-water formation are very important for climate. Surface cooling, in winter, makes water become denser. (As the fresh-water which is cooled begins to expand at temperatures less than 4 C, salt-water continues to compress all the way down to its freezing point of -2 C.) .In the areas where the evaporation becomes more than precipitation, the resulting rise in salinity leads increasing density. Convective overturning occurs as well as the dense surface water mixes downwards especially when the surface water becomes denser than the underlying water. In some places this downward mixing can extend all the way to the bottom, even in deep oceans. Therefore, the dense, deep water which is formed spreads throughout the ocean. When the downward mixing occurs at high latitudes, as a result, it leads to creating a circulation pattern where the warm water from tropical and subtropical regions moves pole ward, surrenders heat to the a tmosphere, sinks, cools and flows back towards the equator. This in turn resulted in transporting the heat pole ward. Now it becomes clear that a small change in just one aspect of the oceans behavior can result in producing major climate variations over very bi areas of the earth. The cold-water formation areas represent good example of this possibly wide-spread phenomenon. Although the scientists asserted that there is an urgent need for conducting more researches, the oceanographers agreed that, as for the whole area north of 30 N latitude, the oceans pole ward transport of heat is equivalent to nearly 15 watts per square meter of the earths surface (W/m2). This actually can be compared with about 200 W/m2 from direct sunshine, and nearly 6 W/m2 for what climate change models predict will happen if the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide doubles. Ocean core records, recent observations, and many results denoted that North Atlantic deep-water formation as well as its ocean heat flow changes and fluctuate substantially over time-scales ranging from years up to millennia. Effect of climate change on oceans In the matter of fact, the climate change and variation may have a great effect on the oceans throughout the world. Actually, from the south Arctic with its diminishing sea ice to the new low-lying beach areas in England to the Great Barrier Reef, the temperature of the planet raised more than the last century. The sea level is continuously rising. The CO2 gas levels are constantly increasing. The planets and animals are appearing in some areas and disappearing from others. As for the climate variation and change, the oceans represent a wonderful source of indicators. The climate change, in general, has a great effect on these oceans are affected. The Climate change has also a great effect on the ocean animals such as the sea turtles, polar bears, penguins, right whales, lobsters, seals, and cod. The beach sea fish are also involved; therefore it is too important to work on ways that may lead to reducing the negative impacts that the climate has by supporting the research, creating p ristine marine protected sanctuaries and promoting sustainable seafood. (Hansen, (2000). Conclusion Finally, we can safely say that climate play an important role in our world. In this study, we have tried to cover some of the main sides of the climate in the world. First, we touched upon one of the main sides of the climate in the world, namely, the factors that have a great effect on the climate explaining how these factors affect the climate greatly. Then we moved to another important point, that is, the earths major climate zone explaining how the scientists have divided the earth into three major regions: polar, temperature and tropical zone. We didnt stop at this point, but we continue to shed the light on the world climate type, the oceans influence on the climate and the effect of climate change on oceans to end our study with the effect of the climate change on the Indian Ocean.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Dune Essay -- essays research papers

Dune   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This book all started with the family Atreides landing on plant Arrakis, commonly known as Dune. The planet Dune was the centre of the universe due to its immense amounts of spice. This spice is greatly needed for all planets as fuel and for raw materials. The family Atreides were asked by Emperor himself to go and mine the spice on the planet. Their greatest enemy the Harkonnen's, were also on Dune. These two families mining the precious spice on the same plant would lead to great troubles and wars.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Soon after that, I was introduced to a very brave and insightful young man. The young man is Paul Atreides. Paul is medium height with short, black hair. His mother Jessica is a Bene Gesserit that means she knows the â€Å"weirding way.† This means Jessica is trained to kill and is also trained as a mind reader. She is very tall and beautiful and is always concerned with the actions of Paul, the future ruler of the galaxy.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jessica's teacher, the Reverend Mother heard of Paul and thought that he might be the great leader that the prophets told of. The Reverend Mother came to Dune and tested Paul to see if this was so. Paul underwent great pain and suffering but passed the tests with the highest reverence. Duke Leto, Paul's father now came into the picture. He was the leader of the Atreides Family. He seemed very established and perceptive. The Atreides family represented good and honesty while their enemies, the Harkonnen's, were ruthless killers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Harkonnen home planet, Gedi Prime was very desolate and dark. It represented the immorality and darkness within the Harkonnens. Their leader Baron Vladimir Harkonnen was very obese and inhuman. He killed his own slaves for fun and hated the Atreides with a passion. He hated their peaceful and honest ways. Most of all he despised their coming to Dune. This Harkonnen leader appeared the typical tyrant leader. Vladimir Harkonnen's most trusted solider Feyd-Rautha was also like him except his physical appearance was that of ideal shape and form.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Back at the Atreides base more characters are introduced to me. They are Duncan Idaho who was the personal trainer for Paul Atreides, Dr. Yeuh who was a good friend of the Duke and later was found out to be a traitor, and Thufir... ... understand the characters and their emotions with more comprehension. There were many themes in ‘Dune' such as â€Å"you shall get your just deserves.† This means that what you have done to others shall be done back to you in full. The Harkonnens army combined with the Emperors attacked and beat the Atreides. Paul in turn strikes back with brute force that many have not seen throughout their existence. The Harkonnens and the Emperor were annihilated and Paul's vengeance was paid. I must say that this science fiction book did create a sense of reality meaning that this situation could happen in the future. A boy or girl born in the future who is destined to be the almighty ruler. He/she will guide us out of depression and into a new era of peace and prosperity. Their may be truth to this story and one day a fight between good and evil may come to reality. Dune is the typical `Good guys vs. Bad guys' theme. The Atreides are at war with the Harkonnens and the good always win (as you already know.) Although this plot is really used too much Frank Herbert did an excellent job to disguise this fact. He blended this into a great story line of action packed adventure and dreams of the future.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Sports Nutrition Market in India

1. Introduction This chapter deals with overview, objectives, methodology, sampling plan and limitations of the study. 1. . Overview of the study Business analysis of whey in India is not restricted to its well defined boundaries. Because of the nature of the product and its current status, it is traded globally and very small quantity is traded within the country. The study is intended to study the effect of global changes on trade. Similarly the emphasis is laid on the application of whey as a product for mass market. The idea is to understand capabilities required for the same and see if any company can fit into that specification. 2. . Objective of the study The study has been undertaken to meet following objectives: 1) To understand the structure, Conduct and performance of whey business in India. 2) To understand the evolution of Whey business in next five years. 3) To identify key opportunities for GCMMF in whey business. 4) To propose market entry strategy for GCMMF to enter into whey business 3. . Methodology followed The study has used personal visits to whey processing plants and modern format stores, questionnaire survey of gym visitors, unstructured interviews with trainers, dieticians, and unstructured interview on telephone with employees of these plants, use of checklist for retailers and distributors. Secondary data from internet and literature have been used. |Sr. No |Data required |Data sources |Tools used | |1. |Turnover, Supply. Market share, Main products, Production |Current Internet, Unstructured interviews with the | | |facilities-capacity, technology; Profits, Future estimates |players, |associated employees, Annual Report study, Indian | | |of demand ,area of operation, |supplier |Export Agency-internet | |2. |Manufacturers, Prices, Volumes, Consuming segment, Margins |Product |Internet, Unstructured interviews with the | | |in different formats, Channels for different formats. formats, |retailers, distributors, Annual Report study of | | | |Channel |players | |3. |Distribution c hannels, margins, mode of operation, |Channel |Internet, structured interviews. | | |incentives | | | |4. Institutional buyers, consumers-segment, consumer |Consumers, |Consumer survey, structured/unstructured | | |preferences, acceptability, product and brand recognition |Retailers |interviews/focussed group surveys, Retailer survey| | |,benefits, value for money ,future market-volume/sales | | | 1. 4. Sampling plan The consumer related result is based on fifty consumers surveys conducted in nine cities namely Anand, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Pune, Delhi, Karnal, Panchkula, Chandigarh and Gurgaon. The retailers, distributors and Modern Format Stores were approached randomly without any restriction on numbers. The idea has been to get qualitative and quantitative information both. 1. 5 Limitations of the study 1. The number of consumers surveyed is not sufficient to generalise the results. However the results are indicative in nature. 2. Time allotted for the study is not sufficient. 3. Qualitative information has been used to understand different requirements of whey business in India. 4. Unavailability of authentic secondary sources for getting information related to gyms, medical stores, and whey utilisation in India etc. . Understanding Whey 2. 1. Whey: Introduction Whey is a by-product of cheese, Paneer and Shrikhand. It is a green yellowish fluid. It can also be called as the water of Paneer, Cheese, and Shrikhand . There are two varieties of whey based on acidity: sweet and acid whey. Similarly the classification of whey has been done on the basis of its source e. g. cas ein or cheese. The developed world has very high per capita consumption of cheese with respect to developing or underdeveloped world; therefore the whey production is mainly concentrated in the developed countries only. 2. 2. Importance of whey Whey contains very nutritive constituents like Whey proteins -Immunoglobulin, amino-acids both essential and non-essential, lactoferin riboflavin, lactose etc which are very important for the body. Whey protein has very High biological and Protein Efficiency Ratio . Thus it is rated as the best protein. Because of technological advancement, these constituents can be separated from the whey. The importance of whey therefore lies due to following reasons: 1. Highly priced: because of very sophisticated technology and high demand for the separated constituents, these are highly priced. 2. Whey has very high Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand (>40000), therefore it poses serious threat to environment. The Government has made strict norms related to environmental pollution. ISO -14000 is basically meant for controlling the environmental pollution related to any manufacturing units. Above two reasons pose a challenge to the whey producing companies to efficiently utilise it. 2. 3. Properties and application of whey Because of the functionality of whey, it finds use in the manufacture of various fields and products. Table 1. Functionality and application of whey Functional Property |Application | |Whipping/Foaming |Egg less cakes, Dessert, Whipped toppings | |Emulsification |Sausages, Coffee whiteners, Soups, Cakes, Infant Formula, Biscuits | |Gelation |Meats, Baked foods, Cheeses, curd, yoghurt | |Viscosity |Soups, Gravies, Salad Dressings | |Water Binding/Mineral Binding |Cakes, Meats , Sausages, Nutritional foods | |Solubility |Beverages | |Browning |Breads, Biscuits, Confectionery, Sauces | |Flavour/Aroma |Baked goods, Biscuits, Confections | From above table it is very much evident that whey has very wide application in food and pharmaceutical industry. 3. Global Whey Business It has already been mentioned that the whey is a by-product of cheese which is mainly consumed in the developed world, particularly Europe and United States. Therefore its production is mainly concentrated in these countries. Global production of whey has been 177 mn MT in 2006 with a value of $ 9bn which is expected to grow annually at 2-3 % for next 5 years. The major contribution in production i. e. approx. 94% is due to Cheese whey and emaining is due to casein whey. Salient features of Global Whey business †¢ About 70% is utilised for industrial purpose and remaining is used for cattle feed, fertilisers and some quantity goes waste. †¢ Fifty six percent of the whey used for industrial purpose is utilised for manufacturing of Whey powders and lactose while nearly 35% is utilised for Whey protein concentrate and permeate and the remaining 9% is used for Dimineralised products and blends. †¢ Approximately 80% of whey products are traded as commodity while 20% is traded as value added products. †¢ In global trade, USA ranks first in export of whey powders(19. 4% share) and China leads in import with 15. % share. (See the annexure containing list of ten major exporting-importing countries) †¢ Majority of key global whey processing companies are located in US and European union. (see the figure 1 on next page) 3. 2 Lactose Lactose is a very important constituent of whey . The total global production was 870000 MT which is expected to grow at the rate of 5-6 % annually. This is mainly used in pharmaceutical, bakery, confectionery industry and in the preparation of infant formula etc. The major global producers of lactose have been shown in the figure 2. Figure 1: Global Whey processing companies [pic] Figure 2: Global lactose producers [pic] The production and application pattern of lactose is different across different part of the world . This is evident from following pie diagram: Figure 3: Global Lactose Processors [pic] Figure 4: Application of Lactose in EU and US [pic] As far its global trade is concerned, USA still is the leader. The realisation from lactose has increased from $ 670 mn in 2004 to $ 1930 mn in 2006 mainly because of spurt in demand. Table 2: Global whey exporters and importers [pic] 3. 3 Global Price rise Over the years there has been a steep rise in the prices of whey products due to increase in demand. Following table will explain the change in the global prices over last years: Table 3: Global Prices (European Union) |Year |WP ($/lb) |WPC($/lb) |Lactose($/lb) | |2004 |0. 284 |0. 588 |0. 1875 | |2005 |0. 316 |0. 82 |0. 1925 | |2006 |0. 489 |0. 69 |0. 3075 | |2007(May) |0. 727 |1. 35 |0. 4 | Source: USDA, NASS, Dairy Market Report, 2007 As the whey from India is traded in the global market, so the price fluctuation decides the volume of business from India. Since the prices of WPC, WP and Lactose have increased substantially in last 2 years and more importantly in early 2007, therefore the profitability of the business has increased. When we consider the price fluctuation of Skim Milk Powder (SMP) and Whey powder with same protein then we find that there has been clear cut price appreciation in WP prices over SMP prices and the difference between per MT prices has in fact increased between these two commodities. Figure 5: Price of SMP and Whey proteins Source: www. fas. usda. gov In 2007, the price rise has been very fast as evident from following graph showing the variation. Figure 6: Global Whey powder prices w. r. t SMP in 2007 Source: USDA, NASS, Dairy Market Report, 2007 4. Indian Whey Industry Whey business in India has been in existence for last 15 years when Cepham Ltd and Mahan Protein started operation in 1992-1994. This business over the years has expanded in terms of volume and value and more Indian private companies have entered into this business. 4. 1 Structure of Whey business in India The structure of Whey Industry in India can be explained below: 4. 1. The nature of industry: Whey is a part of food industry. There are relatively small numbers of whey processing companies in India unlike milk processing companies. Also there are less number of bulk domestic buyers of whey based commodities in India. The production is mainly export oriented. 4. 1. 2 Government regulation: whe y poses environmental threat because of very high B. O. D and C. O. D level. There are environmental regulations framed by the government unlike SMP which has become prone to export ban. Whey powders are not exposed to export ban till now. 4. 1. 3 Type of producers: The whey processing companies are mainly the private Indian players. None of the Multi National Companies and Co-operatives have ventured into this field as they are operating in mass market and don’t want to enter into commodity market . However many global producers are now eyeing India as a potential manufacturing location because of the increased demand of whey products in the global market. 4. 1. 4 Cost and production considerations: The technology of whey processing is more sophisticated than that for traditional dairy products. Globally three generation products are manufactured from whey. These are listed below. These require different kind of technology. Processing technology and product details has been mentioned in the following table. Table 4: Product manufactured and technology used in whey Generation product |Product name |Technology used | |First generation |Whey powder, WPC 35,Lactose |Ultra filtration / Nano-filtration | |Second generation |WPC-80,DWP,Sweeteners,Minerals |Ion -Exchange | |Third generation |Whey protein fraction s, Lactose derivatives, |Chromatography, fractionation technology | | |WPH,WPI | | The cost of production mainly depends on the procurement price of raw material like milk and the availability of milk through out the year . Due to unavailability of milk throughout the year , the production in many plants are stopped during the lean period i. e. April- July. 4. 1. 5 Major whey processing companies in India: Whey business has not been a big industry in terms of quantity of milk processed. When we consider the quantity of milk processed by all the Indian companies the quantity of milk diverted for whey production is less than 1%. Currently there are mainly eight whey processing companies in India. The daily milk handling capacities and production capacities of these plants have been mentioned in the following table 5. Table 5: Major whey processing companies in India: Name |Milk handling |Casein |WPC-WP |Lactose | | |Capacity |(MT/Day) |(MT/day) |(MT/Day) | | |(lakh lts /day) | | | | |VRS Foods Ltd |15 |40 |20 |25 | |Mahaan Proteins |6 |15 |10 |18 | |Modern Dairies Ltd |10 |25 |15 |18 | |Dynamix Dairies Ltd |5 |8 |5 |8 | |Milk food Ltd |8 |15 |10 |15 | |Cepham Ltd |6 |14 |8 |12 | |Bhole Baba Dairy |10 |24 |14 |15 | |Crown Milk Spl. Ltd. |5 |10 |6 |0 | |Total |65 |151 |88 |111 | |Annual(2007 Estimate) |17793. 75 |33069 |19272 |24309 | Source: informal, ex-employees. Most of these companies are situated in the northern part of India and the main reason sighted was availability of milk in these areas. From the table it s very evident that VRS Foods, Sahibabad is the leader with 22% contribution in the total milk utilisation followed by Karnal based Modern Dairies with production concentration 16%. One of the key features of the whey industry in India has been its fast evolution. There were mainly 4 whey processing companies in India till 2005,which increased to 8 in 2007,most of which have started operation in late 2006. The reason of this expansion has been the increase in demand of the whey based products and rise in global prices of these products. The evolution and expansion of the whey industry in India will be clear from following graph. Figure 7: Expansion of whey industry in India Thus the expansion has been by 120% in last two years. Looking the lucre in the industry more companies are thinking to enter into this business. Some the companies which are thinking to enter into the business are: a) Anik ,Etah b) Hatsun Agro,Chennai c) Doiba Foods, Palwal d) Nectar,Pathankoth e) VRS Foods,Sahibabad:It is going to start its new by-product unit in Nasik. These companies are expected to add 40 lakh ltrs of milk to the existing industry volume by 2009. As already been mentioned, these plants are using the casein whey . Only Dynamix Dairies Ltd. , Baramati is using some cheese whey for manufacturing whey powders. 4. 1. 6 Major buyers of whey products in India The whey Powders, Lactose, Whey protein concentrates, Dimineralised whey Powders etc are mainly exported. However in India these are used by many pharmaceutical, dairy, bakery, confectionery companies etc. Some of the major bulk buyers include Nestle, Glaxo-Smithclime Beecham Ltd, Wockhardt Ltd, Novartis, Cadilla. There are small buyers as well but these are mainly in bakery and confectionery industry. WPC has been used widely in Ice-cream industry. Similarly Lactose and DWP are being used in infant formula and neutraceuticals. Exact volume of industry wise utilisation in India is not available. However it has been said by the industry people that most (approx. 75-80%) of Whey powders and WPC are exported but lactose is consumed locally in more quantity. 4. 1. 7 Entry and Exit barriers in whey business industry India Currently the Indian whey industry is running and expanding because of the rise in the global prices of these products. As per the views of the industry experts some of the entry barriers in whey business include: a) The availability of raw milk: As most of the dairy plants are already into different dairy products manufacturing, so they are able to procure most of the milk of that region. The new entrant will have to divert milk from the existing players. It will mean more prices to be paid to the producers. This unavailability of milk becomes a major entry barrier. b) High investment: As the whey processing plants require relatively more sophisticated plant and technology, therefore a large amount of investment has to be made. For example, most of the existing whey processing plants have invested around 70-100 crores for 10 lakh ltrs plant. This is a key barrier. This high investment also becomes an exit barrier as these equipments cannot be used for other dairy products. And coupled with the above reason, there are les numbers of people buying out the machineries. This further discourages the existing players to exit. The live examples are Mahaan Proteins Ltd. and Ceepham Milk Specialities Ltd, Derabassi which are finding it difficult to procure milk in sufficient quantity and simultaneously unable to sale it off for better price. 4. 1. 8 Product differentiation: Currently the whey based powders are traded in commodity markets. So there is no differentiation in terms of brand and specificity. However, there some companies like VRS Foods, are making specific products like 28% Dimineralised Whey Protein Concentrate for Nestle. 4. 1. 9 Location advantage: Most of the plants are situated in northern part of India particularly Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Some companies like VRS Foods have locational advantage as they are present in the area where milk production is maximum and there is no control of any co-operative and Multinational companies in terms of milk procurement. So, they are open to procure more milk at comparatively lower rate than in those areas where there are co-operatives and MNCs having firm procurement base. The locational advantage however does not help more in case of saving transportation cost as most of the manufactured products are meant for export only. 4. 2. Conduct of the whey processing companies in India As already mentioned, the Whey processing plants are operating in commodity market. So there is no advantage in terms of brands. The advantage however lies with respect to availability of technology. Some of the compaies like VRS Foods have dimineralisation facilities unlike others. The summary of the conduct of the whey processing companies can be represented through table 6 provided below. Table 6: Conduct of whey processing companies in India Name |Name of |Major selling |Any alliance |Future | | |Brand |activity | |Targets/Remark | |VRS Foods Ltd |Paras |Export, Nestle |Nestle-Production |Handling capacity to | | | | |Contract |increase by 6 lakh/Day | | | | |(28%DWPC, | | | | | |600MT/Month-Lactose | | |Mahaan Proteins |Mahaan |Export, |   |UF line revamped | | | |Wockha rdt, GSK, | | | | |Novartis | | | |Modern Dairies Ltd |Nulife |Export |Olam International |Handling capacity to | | | | | |increase by 5 lakh | |Dynamix Dairies Ltd |- |Export ,Nestle, |Olam International |- | | | |Pharmaceutical companies | | | |Milk food Ltd |Milk Food |Export |- |- | |Bhole Baba Dairy |Krishna |Export, |- |- | | | |Pharmaceutical companies | | | Thus from the table we get that Dynamix Dairies Ltd and Modern Dairies Ltd sells their products to Olam International. For lactose, however Dynamix has local agent situated in Mumbai. Other companies export on their own brand. VRS Foods, Modern Dairies and Mahaan proteins are already thinking of increasing their handling capacities. This is likely to be operational by next year. 4. 2. 1 Where are the whey products exported? As already been mentioned, most of the whey products are exported to various countries. The export has also increased drastically during last two years. The major exporting destinations have been listed in the following table. Table 7: Exporting destinations of whey products from India |Country Name |2004 |% share |2005 |% share | |KOREA RP |391 |72. 11% |279 |10. 30% | |Canada |97 |17. 88% |0 |0 | |Bangladesh |40 |7. 6% |0 |0 | |BAHARAIN |11 |1. 99% |3 |0. 13% | |Oman |2 |0. 43% |82 |3. 05% | |Sri Lanka |1 |0. 23% |0 |0 | |Thailand |0 |0% |0 |0 | |CHINA P RP |0 |0% |2,091 |77. 30% | |Japan |0 |0% |174 |6. 4% | |Malaysia |0 |0 |75 |2. 78% | |Total(000, USD) |542 |   |2704 |   | |Annual Growth (%) in export|398. 9 |   |   |   | Source: www. apeda. com From the above table we find that the major exporting destinations for India are china, Korea, Japan, Malaysia and Oman. There has been change in the contribution in export from different countries. China has become the main ex porting destinations with more than 77% share in total export in 2005. This is primarily because of the rise in demand for whey based products due to emphasis of china government on sports and upcoming sports events. 4. 3. Performance of whey business in India The performance of whey business in India could be understood through performance under following parameters: 4. 3. 1 Efficiency of production: Efficiency of production mainly relies on the consistent and regular supply of raw material mainly milk . It has been observed that in lean season there is unavailability of milk and therefore the plant runs at lower capacity and thus efficiency reduces. As per the comments of industry experts, the output has been more than 100 % during flush season when there is regular and sufficient supply of milk. 4. 3. Profitability: The profitability of whey business is highly dependent ion the global prices foe WP, WPC, Lactose and the procurement price of raw milk. Over last two years it has been very profitable as the price of milk has remained same and the global ; prices of the products have sky rocketed. The profitability ranges from 10-30 % depending on price fluctuation as reported by industry persons. 4. 3. 3 Size of industry output: The size of Whey industry has been estimated to be around 45000 MT in India in 2007which is expected to grow very fast. With respect to global scenario, the Indian whey industry is expected to grow at more than 20% over next 4-5 years. 4. 3. Technical progress: Currently India is manufacturing generation one whey products. There are some cases (VRS Foods) where ion exchange etc has been added which lead to 2nd generation products. But in next 4-5 years the concentration is likely to remain on the production of 1st generation product only. 4. 3. 5 Growth: The whey industry is expanding very fast. As been mentioned earlier the daily processing of milk is likely to rise from 65 lakh ltrs/day to 105 lakh ltrs/day in India. Thus the growth is likely to be 60% over 2007 by 2009 in volumes. Similarly the export is likely to increase by more than 75% in next two years. 5. Value added products of whey proteins Whey constituents are used in various areas ranging from bakeries, confectionery to health products like infant formula and protein supplements. Apart from these, the use ranges from a normal whey drink to whey protein based drinks. Protein supplements have been classified into two broad categories based on its manufacturer. These are: Pharma protein supplements and Non-Pharma Protein supplements . Pharma protein supplements are manufactured by pharmaceutical companies while Non-Pharma Protein supplements are manufactured either by a nutrition or food company. 5. 1. Pharma protein supplements market in India 5. 1. 1 Some of the key features of protein supplements made by pharmaceutical companies are: 1. These products are consumed by the recommendation of doctors mainly and in some cases the past experience related to product use is the force to purchase these products. 2. This is an organized market and the players are well established in the market. 3. These products over the years have also become Over the Counter (OTC) products. It has been found that brands like proteinex symbolizes all range of protein supplements. Table 8:Indian Pharma Protein Supplement market. |Year:2006-07 |Volume (Ton) |Value | | | |( US $ mn) | |Proteinex sales |4274. 941 |95. 0197 | |Protein supplement market-sales(estimated-2007) |15267. 65 |270. 6537 | |Annual growth rate of protein supplement category (%)|17 |   | |Annual growth rate of proteinex (%) |25 |   | |Market share of proteinex (%) |   |28 | Source: Source:www. eac. dk/eac_en/ir/pr/2002, www. wockhardt. co. uk Some of the major brands of protein supplements available in India have been listed below in the table. Table 9: Major brands of Pharma protein supplements in India Brand |Manufacturer | |Proteinex |Wockhardt | |Protenose |Allembic | |B-protein |Britishbiologicals | |Spert |Novartis | |Alprovit |Alchem | |GRD |Cadilla | |Ultrich |Wallace | |Promolan |Piramal | |Resource |Novartis | 5. 1. Distribution channel of Pharma Protein supplements in India As already been mentioned, the Pharma protein supplements market in India is organized in nature. To understand the value chain of these products the proteinex channel has been used. The table shown below explains the distribution channel of proteinex. Table 10: Distribution channel of Pharma protein supplements in India. |Channel |Price at different levels(Rs/200 gm proteinex*) |% Margin | |Manufacturer |68. 5 |20 | |Superstockist |68. 5+27. 5=96 |3 | |Distributor |96+4. =100. 1 |7 | |Retailer |100. 11+9. 59=109. 7 |20 | |Consumer |109. 7+27. 4=137 |0 | Source: Informal talks with retailers and wholesale dealers in Ahmedabad. 6. Non Pharma Protein Supplement mar ket: Current Scenario Non pharma protein supplements market in India is at nascent stage . This is relatively less organized market when we compare it with the Pharma protein supplements. Basically there are two kinds of Non-Pharma Protein supplements based on their place of manufacturing: 1. Domestic: Indian 2. Imported 6. 1. Imported Protein supplements As the name suggests these are manufactured mainly in countries of European Unions, USA, and Australia. 6. 1. 1 These imported protein supplements have following key features in Indian context: 1. These are premium priced. 2. In many cases, these supplements don’t have traceability in terms of their manufacturers and importing-exporting agencies. In some cases however it was found to have these information. 3. These products have high protein concentrates, mainly whey proteins. 4. There are sole whey protein supplements available in the Indian market. Whey protein ranges from 35 % to 100%. 5. These supplements are having packing size ranging from 2. 2 lb to 10 lb. 6. The final price in the Indian market is dependent on the retailer as it was found to be reprinted on the jars/containers. 7. These products do not have consistent supply as expressed by some of the distributors. 8. These products are mainly sold by the gym owners and dedicated protein supplement stores. These products are largely unavailable in medical stores and Speciality stores. However in some cities like Mumbai, some Modern Format Stores like Big Bazaar is keeping this product. 6. 1. 2 Major imported brands in India Globally some of the famous brands of Non-Pharma Protein supplements have been mentioned below: AST Sports Science, Beverly Internationa, Biotest, Champion Nutrition, Cytodyne, Cytosport ,EAS Gaspari ,Instone Nutrition, Labrada Nutrition, Met Rx, MuscleTech, Optimum Nutrition, Pinnacle ProLab ,SAN Nutrition, Twin Lab, Universal Nutrition, VPX Supplements. However not all of these brands are available in India. Some of the famous brands which are available in India are: Optimum,Prolab,Hercules,Muscletech,EAS,Universal,Labrada, Amway etc. It was observed that Optimum brand has maximum reach in terms of placement. These brands have different variants based on whey protein content, special ingredients like Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCCA), other essential micronutrients etc. 6. 1. 3 Distribution channel of Non-Pharma Protein Supplements The distribution channel of N-PPS could be understood through following figure Figure 8: Distribution channel of imported N-PPS [pic] Thus we find that there are mainly 6 channels of distribution. Based on the responses of the gym owners, retailers, distributors, Modern Format Stores employees, the margin available for the intermediaries is between 40-50%. This further increases when the prices have been reprinted on the product. It has been expressed by these intermediaries that the distributors have a margin of 15-20% while retailers have margin of 25-30 %. These retailers and gyms have higher margin based on the number of intermediaries in the channel, the less the number of intermediaries, the more the margins available. Thus for modern format store as a placement point, the margins available for sharing is around 40-45% ,from which they can give discounts to consumers up to 5-10 % . This trend was seen in Mumbai unlike other metropolitan cities such as Delhi. Similarly, in some medical stores these products were kept and the discount was not available to the consumers. These retail points were garnering 30% of the margin. 6. 2. Indian Non Pharma Protein Supplement market  : current scenario The Indian non-pharma protein supplement market is unorganised in nature . There are many small players operating in different regions of the country. It has been observed that these players are not able to reach different regions of India. These protein supplements have not become a brand in India. 6. 2. 1 Some of the important features of Indian Non pharma protein supplements are: 1. It is manufactured by local and very small players. 2. Prices are kept higher to give it quality product look. 3. The exact composition i. e. protein source, its concentration etc is not mentioned. 4. The manufacturing date, location etc are not mentioned. Labelling is a problem in many cases. 5. These products are strongly thought to be having very harmful side effects. 6. These products have very high margins. It has been observed practically that the margin ranged from 40-60% for the retailer on these Non-pharma protein Supplements. 7. These products are mainly sold in packing size of 500gms, 1 kg, 2 kgs and 5 kgs. 8. These products find good penetration in medical stores and gyms. But these gyms and stores are of relatively lower category. 6. 2. 2 Some of the major Indian brands of non-pharma protein supplements are: 1. Nutramen 2. Endura 3. Stamin 4. Bodyplus 5. ESN 6. Some brands owned by gym owners like Talwalkers. These are the gym chains. They manufacture protein supplements for their own consumers. 6. 2. 3 Distribution Channel of Indian Non-pharma protein supplements The existing distribution channel for Indian non-pharma protein supplements have been explained using following diagram. Figure 9: Distribution channel of Indian N-PPS [pic] From above diagram it could be understood that there are three channels of distribution unlike imported NPPS. The margin available for the intermediaries is around 40%. These products however are sold mostly through gyms and medical stores. Supplements stores have very little share in the total off take, the exact quantity not available. From the diagram it is also very evident that the margins available for the distributor is 15 %. In some cases when he himself becomes the retailer i. e. the gym owner then he has margin of 40% from which he also gives discounts to the consumers. 7. Survey analysis 7. 1. Gym Goers Some of the key findings of the consumer survey based on nine cities have been listed below: 1. Profile of the gym goers: these mainly belong to class A1, A2, B1 category of SEC (Socio Economic Classification). Although the age ranges from 15 yrs to 60 yrs but mostly the gym goers are between 20-40 yrs of age range. They are students (mainly), professionals, executives, government employees, housewives etc. These people wear sporty, reputed and contemporary outfit. 2. Category of gym goers: 65-70% of members are male and 30-35 % is females. In small cities however the % of females is slightly less (20%). 3. Joining health clubs and gyms has become one of the key options for the people to keep themselves fit. 4. Awareness about the whey protein supplements is not adequate. People are not able to differentiate between sports, health and fitness drinks. 5. Most of the consumers, gym trainers and dieticians surveyed responded that whey protein is the best protein. 6. The gym goers perceive the fear of harmful effects of protein supplements. They think that these contain steroids. 7. Protein supplement users: approximately 30-40% of the gym goers are the regular members. On an average the % of gym goers is 10-12% of the total members. 8. The average member size of gym ranged from 250 in Karnal to 757 in Mumbai. The average of all these cities being 524 members per gym. 9. The average gym density varied from 38000 in Anand to 75000 in Delhi. Gym density is the population of the locality divided by the number of gyms in that locality. The average is around 53000. 10. Around 0. 98% of the population goes to the gyms. 0. 37 % of the total population are the regular members of the gyms. 11. Average Per capita monthly consumption of protein supplement by the protein supplement users is 830 gms and the per capita monthly expenditure is Rs 1370. 12. The purchase from the influence of gym trainers is 63%. More is in case of smaller cities than the bigger cities. 13. The aggregate demand of the N-PPS in Urban India is 2383 MT having value 427 crores. 14. Consumers view superior and high protein content, absence of any side effects, presence of other essential nutrients and mass building capacity of the product as the key attributes of the product. Price, brand, taste, and packaging did not find significant importance. Powder was understood product format for them. 15. Most of the consumers completely agree with Amul brand signifying quality, value for money and easy availability. 16. Most of the consumers somewhat agreed with the fact that big companies can enter into the N-PPS business . But they agreed that Amul can become a leader. 17. Developing value for money product, creating awareness and identifying the right distribution channel will be the key for Amul to become market leader. 7. 2. Key findings from Retailers and distributors interview/interaction These are based on the qualitative interaction with the current intermediaries in the distribution channel of the N-PPS. 1. Most of the retailers indicated higher margin in absolute term being the motivation for placing these products in their stores. 2. It has been observed that the off take of the product is more from gyms and recommended stores. The recommendation actually playing significant role in product off-take. 3. Retailers were agreeing on the fact that side effect is the main concern for consumer. 4. A trusted brand is needed for these products to be consumed by more aspiring people. 5. Amul could be successful provided it offers the similar kind of incentives in absolute terms to the placement points like retailers-gyms, Stores etc. 6. How Amul Creates and spreads awareness will decide the penetration of the product. 7. Purchase from retail outlets like big bazaar is possible when consumers are aware of these products. 7. 3. View points of dieticians and the food scientists Based on the views of the scientists of reputed institutes like National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, the key factors which will decide the acceptance of these products will be development of products based on Indian likes (e. g. taste, flavour etc. and communication of these products to the consumers. The scientists expressed that the consumers must be educated about the whey protein being the best protein, and the convenience protein as it easily mixes into the blood. The dieticians at various gyms were acknowledging the fact that whey proteins are the best proteins. They also said that t he consumers are very anxious about the results. They expect quick results. Whey proteins because of very high Biological value produce fast result. Whey proteins can also be used for fitness and efficiency building. It can be used by fat and obese people. It not only compensates for their energy requirement but also provides lean muscle. Dieticians expressed that Body to Mass Ratio (BMR) is a very good indicator for protein requirement. 8. Estimation of Demand of Non-pharma protein supplements in India As already mentioned the Non-pharma protein supplement market in India is highly unorganised and very less secondary information is available in related to number of gyms, gym density, per capita NPPS consumption, market growth rate etc. Therefore primary research was done using consumer survey questionnaire, and checklist for retailers particularly gyms. Nine cities were taken into consideration. 8. 1. Following assumptions have been taken into consideration while estimating demand of NPPS in India: 1. The N-PPS are consumed mainly by the gym goers. 2. The list of the number of gyms available from internet and the number of gyms reported by the gym owners in each city were considered together. The former was given 30% weight and the later was given 70 % . The basic idea was to make an approximation based on the response of the gym owners, consumers and the available list. 3. The annual multiplication factor has been calculated based on the consumption pattern of protein supplements users. Generally a consumer uses the products for 7 months in a year. Around 20% of consumers leave the product in a month, while 80% continue for above mentioned period. Also 80% of the protein supplement users actually continue for 7 months. Thus multiplication factor = 0. 8*0. 8*7+0. 2*1=4. 68. 4. Average per capita monthly consumption of protein supplements (among users only) and their monthly expenses on it are the parameters used for demand estimation in terms of quantity and value. 5. The response of the retailers and gym owners regarding growth of the market has been considered for finding the average annual growth rate and using it for projecting demand for next 5 years. 6. The amount of N-PPS consumed is a mixture of 40 % and 70% whey protein powders. So, the final demand estimated will represent 55% whey protein containing N-PPS. Table 11: City wise demand estimation of N-PPS |Cities |Population |Number of gyms: | Listed gyms: |Estimated gyms |Gym density | |   |2007(approx. |response based |internet based |ratio:(70/30) |   | |Mumbai |19264521 |500 |214 |414. 2 |46510 | |Pune |4408248 |120 |71 |105. 3 |41864 | |Delhi |15095075 |250 |81 |199. 3 |75740 | |Gurgaon |1000000 |30 |   |21 |47619 | |Panchkula |200000 |12 |   |8. |23810 | |Chandigarh |900000 |40 |   |28 |32143 | |Karnal |200000 |10 |   |7 |28571 | |Ahmedabad |5304257 |100 |26 |77. 8 |68178 | |Anand |400000 |15 |   |10. 5 |38095 | |Total |46772101 |1077 |   |871. 5 |53669 | †¦ continued (table horizontally associated with next one) |Average gym |% of people |Avg monthly |Avg monthly |Supplement |Monthly | |goers/gym |going gym |consumption(gm) |budget(Rs) |user/gym | consumption(MT) | |757 |1. 63 |825 |1750 |74 |25. 14 | |580 |1. 39 |733 |1400 |65 |4. 99 | |471 |0. 2 |925 |1540 |59 |10. 90 | |467 |0. 98 |733 |1233 |65 |1. 00 | |367 |1. 54 |600 |850 |48 |0. 24 | |450 |1. 40 |1250 |1500 |39 |1. 37 | |250 |0. 88 |750 |1550 |40 |0. 21 | |450 |0. 6 |950 |1300 |33 |2. 40 | |500 |1. 31 |700 |1200 |40 |0. 29 | |524 |0. 98 |830 |1369 |   |46. 55 | Table 12: Demand estimation of N-PSS of top 35 cities of India |Population |Number |Total Population- |% representation |Representative |Annual |Annual | |20L-40L |5 |14329950 |13. 6 |Gurgaon, |83. 5 |117238752 | | | | | |Chandigar h | | | |40L-80L |5 |30816617 |31. 52 |Ahmedabad, |109. 7 |190222388 | | | | | |Pune | | | |>80L |3 |49839421 |68. 94 |Delhi, |244. |485241953 | | | | | |Mumbai | | | |Total |35 |126885770 | |Red bull |Energy |47 | |Monster |Energy |12 | |Rock star |Energy |11 | |Gatorade |Sports |85 | |Powerade |Sports |13 | |Lucozade |Sports |1 | In India however very few global brands like Red bull, Power House and Gatorade are available. 10. Demand Estimation of Sports and Fitness drinks in India 10. 1. Following features of sports and fitness drinks consumer could be used to estimate the demand of these drinks: 1. These are consumed by relatively rich class and upper middle class people. 2. Sports drinks are popular among 15-30 yrs while Fitness drinks popular among 30-60 yrs people. 3. These are sporty in nature and try to adopt the sporty culture very fast, so they like to wear brands related to sports. 10. 2. U. K sports drink market The U. K sports drinks market was estimated to be of 110 mn ltrs in 2006 by Zenith international, a market research agency. Per capita annual consumption has increased from 0. ltrs in 2000 to 1. 8 ltrs in 2006. Following graph shows the Per Capita Consumption of Sports Drinks in U. K. Figure 12: Per capita consumption of sports drinks in U. K [pic] The growth in per capita consumption can be understood from following diagram. Figure 13: Growth of U. K sports drink market [pic] From the a bove diagram it is quite evident that the growth rate was very high initially around 2000-02 but it declined in subsequent years and almost remaining constant at 13-14%. This pattern could be used to further project the demand. 10. 3 Some of the assumptions being made for demand calculations are: 1. The pattern of consumption of U. K has been used as an indicator. 2. Adoption of sporty culture has been considered as a comparing parameter. 3. Per Capita annual Income of U. K people has been used to identify the potential consumer. 4. The relationship between Per Capita annual Income and Per capita annual consumption has been used to find out demand for similar kind of Indian consumers. 5. Urban population has been considered only. 10. 4 Steps followed 1. The relationship between PCI and PCC for U. K consumer is estimated using simple regression analysis. The relationship was significant and the model was robust. The relationship obtained is: PCC (Ltrs) =-2. 51175+0. 00123PCI (PPP) 2. The segment of population having comparable income to PCI of U. K is found out from secondary data available at www. ncaer. org. The PCI data is converted from nominal to PCI -PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) in dollar terms using 1$ =Rs 42 as conversion factor. 3. Conversion factor for PCI (nominal) to PCI(PPP)=Current PCI (PPP) of In dia/Current PCI(nominal) of India=$4031/$885 =4. 55 4. The Urban population belonging to age group 15-30 yrs and 30-60 yrs has been taken from www. censusindia. net . For both the population 0. 6 multiplication factor has been used assuming all males and only 20% of the females as the customers. 5. The adoption of sporty culture has been calculated from the responses of the consumers while conducting consumer survey. The brands like Nike, Adidas, and Reebok have been used for this purpose. 50% of the consumers were of this category. So to the total consumers estimated in step 4, 0. 5 has been multiplied to obtain the potential customers. 6. By using the relationship in step 1 and Income from step 2, PCC of sports drinks can be calculated. This has been multiplied by the number of potential customers obtained in step 5. This will give the total demand of the sports and fitness drinks. Following table shows the demand of Sports and Fitness drinks in Urban India. Table 14: Calculated Demand of SFD in India [pic] 1. Amul Capabilities To understand whether Amul could be able to tap this lucrative market, following capabilities have been analysed: 1. Availability of raw materials-whey 2. Technical capabilities. 3. Marketing capabilities. 11. 1. Availability of raw materials-whey Currently the sources of whey for Amul are: Paneer, Shrikhand and Cheese. Following table shows the current availability of the whey for Amul. Table 15: Sources of whey in Amul [pic] As mentioned in the above table, the annual growth rate for cheese, paneer and shrikhand demand could be used to project the availability of whey in next five years. Based on following information the gap between the availability of whey and its demand could be estimated: 1. One Kg of whey protein could be obtained from 143 kgs of liquid whey as liquid whey has 0. 7% whey protein. 2. The sports and fitness drinks will have 5% whey protein. 3. The average whey protein concentration of the N-PPS demand calculated is 55%. Figure 14: The future projections of Whey production in Amul [pic] Following table shows the aggregated gap between the availability and total demand of whey protein based sports and fitness drinks and N-PPS. Table 16: Estimation of gap between the production of whey and demand of whey based substances (N-PPS/SFD).    |Lakh ltrs |Lakh ltrs |Whey proteins |Demand- |Whey protein |Equivalent | | | | | |NPPS | | | |Year |per day |Available |available(MT) |55% (MT) |Content |Whey(Lakh ltrs) | | | | | | |(MT) | | |2007 |2. 19 |658 |461 |2374 |1306 |1865. 3 | |2008 |2. 91 |872 |610 |2843 |1564 |2233. 8 | |2009 |3. 88 |1164 |814 |3419 |1 880 |2686. 4 | |2010 |5. 21 |1562 |1094 |4130 |2272 |3245. | |2011 |7. 03 |2109 |1477 |5011 |2756 |3937. 2 | †¦ (Continued horizontally) |SD/FD |Total Whey Required |Difference |% Whey availability | |(lakh Ltrs) |(Lakh ltrs) |(Demand-Supply)-MT | | |67 |1932 |1274 |34 | |163 |2397 1525 |36 | |285 |2972 |1808 |39 | |438 |3683 |2121 |42 | |628 |4565 |2456 |46 | Thus the whey available is able to meet around 35% of the total demand of N-PPS and SFD. 11. 2. Amul Technical Capabilities: Size of the Whey processing plant Amul currently does not possess any whey processing plant. As there is availability of whey already, to operate efficiently i. e. leverage upon economies of scale it will have to divert some milk for whey production. It has been observed that the whey processing plant in India is having handling capacity between 5-10 lakh ltrs per day . The capital investment on these plants have been from 60-100 crores. Assuming the plant of capacity 10 lakh ltrs/day, the amount of whey generated will be 67% i. e. 6. 7 lakh ltrs. So the initial difference would be 4. 5 lakh ltrs of whey i. e. 6. 7 lakh ltrs of Skim milk (S. M). Assuming Amul to capture share of 50% of current demand, the capacity required after 5 years hence will be around 8 lakh ltrs of whey i. e. 12 lakh ltrs of S. M. So ideally the plant handling capacity could be 12 lakh ltrs per day. Table 17: Realisation from By-product plant at current market price.    |Qty(Kg) |Price(Rs) |Total(Rs) | |Skim Milk (S. M) |100 |13 |1300 | |Casein |2. 7 |350 |945 | |Whey protein-35 |2. 00 |250 |500 | |Lactose |3. 40 |100 |340 | |Realisation on S. M | | |485 | |% Realisation on S. M | | |37 | |All other [email  protected]% | | |325 | |Net realisation | | |160 | |% Net realisation | | |12. 31 | For 10 lakh ltrs milk per day or assuming 300 working days, the net realisation will be Rs 48 crores. The investment made on the plant is around Rs 120 crores for 10 lakh ltrs plant. Return on capital employed would be=48*100/120=40%. Currently Amul has two facilities for product development: 1. Vidya Dairy ,Anand 2. Khatrej Cheese Plant 11. 3. Marketing capabilities of Amul For product like Protein Supplements and sports and fitness drinks it is very important to assess the marketing capabilities before launching the product as these products require non-conventional distribution channel and promotion activities. 11. 3. 1 Analysis of Amul as a brand It is very important to understand the popularity of Amul Brand among the potential customers. This will indicate the acceptance of Amul products. The analysis included consumer survey. The consumers were asked the question what Amul is known for. The responses were scaled from 1 to 7, 1 being ompletely disagree, and 4 being neither agree nor disagree and 7 being completely agree. The responses have been summarised below. Table 18: Amul as a brand |Features of Amul brand |Mean |Median |Mode |Remarks | |Quality |6. 15 |6 |6 |Strongly Agree | |Fair Price |6. 08 |6 |6 |Strongly Agree | |Value for money |5. 93 |6 |6 |Strongly Agree | |Amul market leader |5. 5 |6 |6 |Strongly agree | |Availability of product |5. 59 |6 |5 |Strongly Agree | |Big company entry |4. 2 |4 |4 |Don’t agree | |Amul fit into sports nutrition |5. 3 |5 |5 |Somewhat agree | |Amul capability |5. 28 |5 |5 |Somewhat agree | |Existing Distribution/Branding |4. 53 |5 |6 |Somewhat agree | From above table it is evident that most of the consumers strongly agreed that Amul is known for its quality, value for money, fair price, and availability of products. Amul can become market leader is well accepted by the consumers. However the challenge lies in fitting the Amul brand into sports nutrition and identifying suitable distribution channels for such products. The consumers also hinted that by creating awareness this problem could be sorted out 2. Market entry strategy for Amul It has already been identified that the whey business is highly lucrative both as a commodity and in mass market. However sustenance of profitability with less risk lies in mass market. Amul should take the advantage of being the first mover into this category in India . It can leverage upon its brand. The market entry will include following marketing decisions: †¢ Market segment †¢ Target customers †¢ Positioning †¢ Product, Price, Place and Promotion related decisions. 12. 1 Market segmentation: The market for these products i. e. Non-Pharma Protein Supplements (N-PPS) and Sports and Fitness drinks (SFD) could be segmented on the basis of age, location, lifestyle, income, household category etc. The segmentation for N-PPS has been shown in the following table. Table 19:Market segmentation for N-PPS [pic] Similarly the segmentation for SFD consumers could be done as follows. Table 20: Market segmentation for SFD. Age group |15-30 yrs for sports drinks,30-60 yrs for Fitness drinks | |Sex |Male/female, mainly male | |Place |Urban | |Profession |Upper middle class, Rich class | |Occupation of the head of the family |Middle to senior executives, Professionals | |Household category |A1,A2 | |Clothes and sports |Reputed, branded, s porty | |Culture |Westernization | 12. 2. Target segment This is very important as it gives idea about those customers which have maximum potential to purchase these products. To accurately identify the target customers for N-PPS, Discriminant analysis (see below) was done . The results show that those customers who have very high Value for Money (VFM) are most likely to buy these products. So the target customers for N-PPS will be 20-25 years old, gym- goer males. [pic][pic] Eigen value, Wild’s Lambda and significance were 0. 71, 0. 58 and 0. 00 respectively which shows that the model is robust. Here 1 and 2 signify those customers who will buy and will not buy Amul products respectively. Initially the target customers for SFD will be high income category gym going p

Friday, January 3, 2020

The Internet Benefits The Human Race - 993 Words

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The Problem Faced By The Student Run Clinic - 1451 Words

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